Wideband 5G services require the use of a large amount of spectrum. 5G licensed cellular bands are limited and expensive. The major costs of 5G services are the spectrum licensing fee and new equipment cost. Both are high. Industry attention is focused on the public network, with little attention to and support for private and enterprise network deployment.
The Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute (ASTRI) was founded by the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in 2000 with the mission of enhancing Hong Kong's competitiveness through applied research. ASTRI’s core R&D competence in various areas is grouped under five Technology Divisions: AI and Big Data Analytics; Communications; Cybersecurity, Cryptography and Trusted Technologies; Integrated Circuits and Systems; and IoT and Sensors. It is applied across five core areas which are Smart City, Financial Technologies, Intelligent Manufacturing, Digital Health, and Application Specific Integrated Circuits.