At the dawn of the fifth generation (5G) wireless communications era, the ever-increasing demand for higher data transmission rates continues to drive carrier frequencies into the terahertz (THz) bands for improved channel capacities. However, the increased operating frequency imposes significant challenges in THz antenna design; it incurs high atmospheric absorption loss, significant metal and dielectric material losses, and limited fabrication tolerance. Moreover, conventional antenna design that alters current pathways on conducting surfaces cannot meet the new demands for beam management for next-generation wireless communications.
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